Robert D. Ballard


Guide to the Encyclopedia

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Haraldur Sigurdsson

The History of Volcanology
Haraldur Sigurdsson

Part I: Introduction

Mantle of the Earth
Raymond Jeanloz

Melting the Mantle
Paul D. Asimow

Migration of Melt
Martha J. Daines

Plate Tectonics and Volcanism
Michael R. Perfit and Jon P. Davidson

Composition of Magmas
Nicholas W. Rogers and Chris J. Hawkesworth

Volatiles in Magmas
Paul J. Wallace and Alfred T. Anderson

Physical Properties of Magmas
Frank J. Spera

Magma Chambers
Bruce D. Marsh

Rates of Magma Ascent
Malcolm J. Rutherford and James E. Gardner

Plumbing Systems
Charles R. Carrigan

Magma Ascent at Shallow Levels
Claude Jaupart

Part II: Eruption

Earth's Volcanoes and Eruptions: An Overview
Tom Simkin and Lee Siebert

Sizes of Volcanic Eruptions
David M. Pyle

Volcanic Episodes and Rates of Volcanism
Haraldur Sigurdsson

Part III: Effusive Volcanism

Basaltic Volcanoes and Volcanic Systems
George P.L. Walker

Lava Flows and Flow Fields
Christopher R.J. Kilburn

Lava Domes and Coulees
Jonathan H. Fink and Steven W. Anderson

Lava Fountains and Their Products
John A. Wolff and Janet M. Sumner

Basaltic Volcanic Fields
Charles B. Connor and F. Mike Conway

Flood Basalt Provinces
Peter R. Hooper

Submarine Lavas and Hyaloclastite
Rodey Batiza and James D. L. White

Seamounts and Island Building
Ralf Schmidt and Hans-Ulrich Schmincke

Subglacial Eruptions
John L. Smellie

Part IV: Explosive Volcanism

Magmatic Fragmentation
Katherine V. Cashman, Brad Sturtevant, Paolo Papale, Oded Navon

Phreatomagmatic Fragmentation
Meghan M. Morrisey, Bernd Zimanowski, Kenneth Wohletz, Ralf Buettner

Hawaiian and Strombolian Eruptions
Sylvie Vergniolle and Margaret Mangan

Vulcanian Eruptions
Meghan M. Morrissey and Larry G. Mastin

Plinian and Subplinian Eruptions
Raffaello Cioni, Paola Marianelli, Roberto Santacroce, Allesandro Sbrana

Surtseyan and Related Phreatomagmatic Eruptions
James D. L. White and Bruce F. Houghton

Phreatoplinian Eruptions
Bruce F. Houghton, Colin J. N. Wilson, Richard T. Smith, Jennie S. Gilbert

Volcanic Plumes
Steven N. Carey and Marcus I. Bursik

Pyroclast Transport and Deposition
Colin J. N. Wilson and Bruce F. Houghton

Pyroclastic Fall Deposits
Bruce F. Houghton, Colin J. N. Wilson, David M. Pyle

Pyroclastic Surges and Blasts
Greg A. Valentine and Richard V. Fisher

Ignimbrites and Block-and-Ash Flow Deposits
Armin Freundt, Colin J. N. Wilson, Steven N. Carey

James W. Vallance

Debris Avalanches
Tadahide Ui, Shinji Takarada, Mitsuhiro Yoshimoto

Volcaniclastic Sedimentation Around Island Arcs
Steven N. Carey

Peter W. Lipman

Composite Volcanoes
Jon P. Davidson and Shan Da Silva

Scoria Cones and Tuff Rings
Dirk Vespermann and Hans Ulrich Schmincke

Part V: Extraterrestrial Volcanism

Volcanism on the Moon
Paul D. Spudis

Volcanism on Io
Rosaly Lopes-Gautier

Volcanism on Venus
Larry S. Crumpler and Jayne Aubele

Volcanism on Mars
James R. Zimbelman

Cryovolcanism in the Outer Solar System
Paul Geissler

Part VI: Volcano Interactions

Volcanic Gases
Pierre Delmelle and John Stix

Geothermal Systems
Fraser Goff and Cathy J. Janik

Surface Manifestations of Geothermal Systems
Manfred P. Hochstein and Patrick R. L. Browne

Deep Ocean Hydrothermal Vents
David Butterfield

Volcanic Lakes
Pierre Delmelle and Alain Bernard

Mineral Deposits Associated with Volcanism
Noel C. White and Richard J. Harrington

Part VII: Volcanic Hazards

Volcanic Ash Hazards to Aviation
Thomas P. Miller and Thomas J. Casadevall

Volcanic Aerosol and Global Atmospheric Effects
Mike J. Mills

Hazards from Pyroclastic Flows and Surges
Setsuya Nakada

Lava Flow Hazards
Donald W. Peterson and Robert I. Tilling

Lahar and Jökulhlaup Hazards
Kelvin S. Rodolfo

Hazards of Volcanic Gases
Hazel Rymer and Glyn Williams-Jones

Volcanic Tsunamis
James E. Begét

Volcanic Seismicity
Stephen R. McNutt

Impacts of Eruptions on Human Health
Peter J. Baxter

Volcanic Contributions to the Carbon and Sulfur Geochemical Cycles and Global Change
Michael A. Arthur

The Ecology of Volcanoes: Recovery and Reassembly of Living Communities
Ian W. B. Thornton

Volcanism and Biotic Extinctions
Michael R. Rampino and Stephen Self

Part VIII: Eruption Response and Mitigation

Seismic Monitoring
Stephen R. McNutt

Ground Deformation, Gravity and Magnetics
John B. Murray, Corinne A. Locke, Hazel Rymer

Gas, Plume, and Thermal Monitoring
John Stix and Hélène Gaonach

Synthesis of Volcano Monitoring
Stephen R. McNutt, John Stix, Hazel Rymer

Volcano Warnings
Christopher G. Newhall

Volcanic Crises Management
Servando de la Crùz-Reyna, Roberto Meli, Roberto Quaas

Volcanic Hazards and Risk Management
Russell Blong

Risk Education and Intervention
David Johnston and Kevin Ronan

Part IX: Economic Benefits and Cultural Aspects of Volcanism

Exploitation of Geothermal Resources
Stefán Arnórsson

Volcanic Soils
Chien-Lu Ping

Volcanic Materials in Commerce and Industry
Jonathan Dehn and Stephen R. McNutt

Volcanoes and Tourism
Haraldur Sigurdsson and Rosaly Lopes-Gautier

Archaeology and Volcanism
Stephen L. Harris

Volcanoes in Art
Haraldur Sigurdsson

Volcanoes in Literature and Film
Haraldur Sigurdsson and Rosaly Lopes-Gautier

Appendix I: Units and Dimensions

Appendix II: Volcanoes of the Earth