Color Figures: Color versions of selected charts and figures from the black-and-white print book
FIGURE 1.6 Global surface air temperature anomalies (in °C, with respect to the 1951–1980 reference period), June–August 2003. Note the very high anomalies over Western Europe. Source: NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Earth Sciences Division. http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/maps/.
FIGURE 2.19 High water mark from Hurricane Hazel. Source: Rebecca Hanson
FIGURE 3.4 Risk types. The Y-axis represents frequency, and the X-axis represents extent of damage. The specific types of risks include consideration of other factors, such as uncertainty and catastrophic potential.
FIGURE 3.11 The psychometric paradigm of risks. Factor one is composed of the variables controllability, dread, globally catastrophic, level of fatality, equitability, scale, risk to future generations, reducibility, trend, and voluntariness. Factor two is composed of observability, degree known to exposed, delayed versus immediate, new versus old, and degree known to science. Superimposed on the chart are risk management strategies appropriate to the quadrant. Source: Modified from Slovic P. E., The Perception of Risk (Earthscan Publications, 2000).
FIGURE 3.18 Global Hunger Index for 2013.53 Source: von Grebmer et al. (2013). Reproduced with permission from the International Food Policy Research Institute.
FIGURE 4.4 Earthquake hazard in Eastern United States and Southeastern Ontario. Red dots indicate historical earthquakes, while the colored contours indicate relative hazard magnitude. Source: United States Geological Survey, http://www.usgs.gov/public_lecture_series/images/hazards_map.jpg.
FIGURE 5.11 Coupling–complexity chart. Adapted from Normal Accidents: Living with High Risk Technologies by Charles Perrow.
FIGURE 5.12 Implications of Normal Accident Theory for disaster management. For large disasters and catastrophes, both complexity and coupling are likely to be large. This suggests that typical top-down management structures are inadequate, but raises the issue that there may be a fundamental difficulty in created effective strategies that incorporate both top-down and bottom-up simultaneously.
FIGURE 5.17 Elevation profile of New Orleans. Note the area below water level, which is safe only because of levees and seawalls. Source: Gesch, Dean, “Topography-based Analysis of Hurricane Katrina,”US Geological Survey